The Perineal ‘Bundle’ and Midwifery

I’ve tried to avoid tackling this issue for months now but it won’t go away. It seems that the ‘bundle’ is one of the main topics of concern amongst midwives and students at the moment. So here goes – my answer to “what can we do about the bundle?”

The Bundle

Women’s Healthcare Australasia (WHA) is implementing a “range of initiatives to support members to achieve the highest possible standards of maternity & newborn care, including benchmarking, networking, and collaborative improvement projects.” One of the initiatives is a WHA National Collaborative Improvement Project aimed at “reducing by 20% the number of women harmed by a third or fourth degree tear by the end of 2018”. This is much needed with rates of around 3-4% in some hospitals. The WHA state that: “Teams from twenty six maternity services… are participating.  Teams are receiving regular coaching and support to reliably implement a bundle of evidence based practices known to reduce risk harm from tears.” Unfortunately, the WHA webpage does not describe what the ‘evidence based practices’ are. A similar project is underway in the UK. However this post focuses on the Australian bundle.

Before we go any further it is important to note what ‘controllable’ factors increase the chance of perineal trauma during birth according to research (see this post for more info and refs): particular positions (supine, lithotomy, squatting); directed pushing; syntocinon particularly with multips; hands on for multips; and instrumental birth. None of these factors are included in the bundle.

I will address each of the 5 ‘evidence based practices’ in the bundle:

1: Apply warm perineal compresses during the second stage of labour at the commencement of perineal stretching (for all women).
Cochrane Review =  “Moderate-quality evidence suggests that warm compresses, and massage, may reduce third- and fourth-degree tears but the impact of these techniques on other outcomes was unclear or inconsistent”. It would be nice if it was worded a little differently ie. ‘offer all women…’ You can find more information about how to apply warm perineal compresses here.

2: With a spontaneous vaginal delivery [birth!], using gentle verbal guidance, to encourage a slow controlled birth of the fetal head and shoulders: a. support the perineum with the dominant hand; b. apply counter pressure on the fetal head with the non-dominant hand; c. if the shoulders do not delivery spontaneously, apply gentle traction to release the anterior shoulder; d. allow the posterior shoulder to be released following the curve of Carus.
Slow birth does reduce the chance of tearing – supporting physiology assists with this. However, ‘hands on’ does not reduce tearing according to the Cochrane Review. (best evidence). In addition, a recent study conducted in Australian hospitals found that ‘hands on’ made no difference for primips, and increased the chance of tearing for multips. The study concluded that: “A hands poised/undirected approach could be utilised in strategies for the prevention of moderate and severe perineal injury.” The ‘hands on’ recommendation also contradicts Queensland Health Normal Birth Guidelines. Of course there are always situation in which ‘hands on’ is appropriate. You can see me using hands on at this birth. However, ‘hands off’ ie. non-intervention should be default as per midwifery standards.

3: When episiotomy is indicated it should be performed: a. at crowning of the fetal head; b. using a medio-lateral incision; c. at a minimum 60 degree angle from the fourchette. NB. An episiotomy is indicated for all women requiring a forceps or vacuum assisted delivery having their first vaginal birth.
Episiotomy increases the chance of significant tearing, therefore is rarely carried out by midwives during a normal birth (I hope). Guidance on how best to do an episiotomy is helpful. In relation to instrumental birth… this is an obstetrician directed recommendation. I’m sure there are some OBs a bit miffed at being told to cut every woman during instrumental births rather than use their clinical judgement for individual women. I’ve worked with many OBs who are able to do a ventouse with an intact perineum. However, instrumental birth does increase the risk of 3rd/4th degree tearing. It is interesting that there is no recommendation to avoid adherence to non-evidence based timeframes for ‘progress’ that result in unnecessary instrument births and perineal tearing (WHO).

4: Genito-anal examination following birth needs to: a. be performed by an experienced clinician; b. include a PR [rectal] examination on all women, including those with an intact perineum.
Rectal examination has always been part of assessing a perineal tear, particularly a 2nd degree tear – to identify if it is a 3rd or 4th degree. If clinicians are missing 3rd / 4th degree tears then they need to be supported to improve their assessment of tears. The main issue with this recommendation is doing a rectal examination on a woman with an intact perineum. I have been unable to get any stats on the incidence of 3rd/4th degree tears with an intact vaginal wall. I have never seen this. I have heard rumours that it has happened. The incidence of this rare situation needs to be shared with women who have an intact perineum so that they can make an informed decision to consent to a rectal examination. Anyone with the stats – please share them!

5: All perineal trauma should be: a. graded according to the RCOG grading guideline; b. reviewed by a second experienced clinician to confirm the diagnosis and grading.

Midwifery Practice

As midwives we are supposed to adhere to professional and legal standards. Our professional standards require us to be woman-centred, evidence-based and promote and support physiology (ICM; NMBA – Australia). The ICM position statement on the ‘appropriate use of intervention childbirth’ provides guidance about the use of intervention by midwives and states that: “Women have the right to make informed decisions about the use or non-use of intervention” and “urges midwives to only use or promote the use of intervention during childbirth when indicated.” The law requires us to gain consent for any proposed intervention, consent involves providing adequate information. The mother-midwife relationship requires that midwives share information with women and support their decisions. This is where midwives and students are struggling. Aspects of the bundle conflict with their professional responsibilities.

So back to the initial question “what can we do about the bundle”. The recommendations that are causing the most upset are the ‘hands on’ approach for all births, and the rectal examination with an intact perineum.

Suggestions re. ‘hand’s on’ for all births

  • We could just refuse to comply with ‘hands on’ based on our professional and legal requirements for evidence-based care. Our professional and legal standards trump any workplace directive or employee contract. If all midwives supported each other in this stance practice would change.


  • Ensure that women are given adequate information to consent to this intervention – preferably in the antenatal period so that their wishes can be clearly documented before labour. This information needs to include the fact that the intervention is not supported by evidence, and for multips it may increase the chance of them tearing.

Suggestions re. rectal examination for intact perineum

  • Demand the evidence to support this intervention ie. the incidence of 3rd / 4th degree tearing with an intact perineum. Without this we cannot…
  • Ensure that women are given adequate information to consent. Including a statement along the lines of (after initial assessment of the perineum post birth): “Your perineum is intact and I can’t see any evidence of a tear. In rare circumstances (quantify here eg. 1: 1000) there is a tear in the rectum despite the perineum being intact. I can check your rectum for you if you’d like, or I can leave you to get on with x [feeding baby, etc.]. What would you like me to do?”

We could also use the bundle as an opportunity to get back to basics (woman-centred, evidence-based care) and reclaim midwifery as an autonomous profession (ICM). It is about time that midwives said ‘enough’ to the bombardment of non-evidence based medicalisation of birth. Solidarity (with each other and women) and activism is long overdue in maternity care.

Update – Media Release from WHA

WHA have responded to this post with a media release. I appreciate WHA’s consideration of concerns regarding the bundle. It is good that the financial penalties have been removed for 3rd and 4th degree tears. My response/questions to WHA:

  • Which members of the expert panel had the final say regarding which interventions were included in the bundle? Were all of the experts in agreement about the final bundle?
  • Could WHA provide a statement from the consumers involved that they approved the final bundle; and provide information about whether consumers withdrew from the working party (and what proportion withdrew)?
  • WHA state that they are “happy to share any of the evidence reviewed by the expert panel in the development of the bundle” – Could you please share the evidence relating to a ‘hands on’ approach for all women during birth, and explain why this recommendation contradicts the QH Normal Birth guidelines.
  • Why were other evidence-based approaches that align with clinical guidelines not included in the bundle eg. spontaneous pushing, encouraging/discouraging particular birthing positions?
  • Will WHA monitor episiotomy rates during this intervention. Anecdotally midwives  and students are reporting increased use of episiotomy during normal birth, particularly for primips.
  • Could WHA provide an estimated risk of a 3rd/4th degree tears WITH AN INTACT PERINEUM. It is the rectal examination with an intact perineum that is problematic re. informed consent.

Readers – please email WHA ( with your concerns and experiences relating to the bundle. It is important that WHA are made aware of how the bundle is impacting on the care of women in the clinical setting.

Further resources: 

Severe perineal trauma is rising, but let us not overreact – Dahlen et al. 2015

Protecting Your Perineum – Birthful Podcast (Rachel Reed)




About midwifethinking

Midwife and Senior Lecturer
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29 Responses to The Perineal ‘Bundle’ and Midwifery

  1. Cathy Green says:

    This is fabulous thankyou! Cathy Green Midwife Birmingham Women’s hospital

    Sent from my iPhone


    • Thanks Cathy – at least the UK website kind of cites some research. In the movie the OB blames midwives for not protecting the perineum. Cites a study (no ref provided so I can’t check it out) that has findings contrary to all the other studies… then tells us that they invited the researcher over to teach them all how to intervene. Unbelievable!

  2. Dear Rachel

    I feel so despairing. Why not just turn her over (rotate her 180 degrees around the axis of her spine)? All-fours, standing, less perineal trauma according to a recent BMAC article. You probably can’t do any of the ‘bundle’ in these positions and if the bundle is going to prevent this then you are causing perineal trauma (and internal trauma) needlessly. OK I might be exaggerating.

    Midwifery Today have just accepted the attached article from me on the role of the clitoris in 2nd stage, to be published in the ‘Fall’ and I would greatly appreciate your thoughts on this. I thhink it is the key to 2nd stage and yet another angle on positio in labour. I hope you find it in tune with your own thinking.

    I should have said in the article we need to wait for the reflex to work. I originally wrote it for the New Scientist as they seem to relish anything ‘sexy’ but obviously not from an unknown female writer. Midwifery Today had a lovely piece including different phases which tied up beautifully with my clitoris aticle so I tweaked it for them.

    Anyway, thanks for all you are doing to put the real science into midwifery.


  3. Bethan says:

    Thanks Rachel this is refreshing to hear. When I first heard about the bundle I was sadden to hear that we’re being dictated practice, where is our autonomy going? and why aren’t they looking at all the evidence on continuity models where physiological births are more evident with fantastic outcomes including perineal trauma!
    Thank you for your comprehensive review of the available evidence and voicing what we’re all thinking.

    • We need to remember that the institutions are culture-based. Historically they have been dominated by medicine and the view that women’s bodies are dangerous and need to be controlled by the external expert. This is reflected in policy and guidelines including this initiative. As midwives we can choose to align our practice with midwifery philosophy… and work towards a woman-centred approach to maternity care. We have the research on our side – this type of care improves outcomes.

  4. Ana says:

    Whenever I read or hear about tearing I can’t help reflecting on my own experience, which was no tearing at all with my 10 lb. 14 oz. water baby. People couldn’t believe it because the popular notion is that big babies must always be difficult to deliver. When I knew my daughter was going to be big I started reading other big baby home birth stories to prepare. There are so many out there. So I add mine to this discussion as well. My claim to fame 😉 Thank you for your brilliant work! Like all of your writing this article is a must-read.

  5. Just wondering why you did use hands on for the birth in the video Rachel? (Bel’s VBAC) Thanks, Karen

    • Baby’s shoulder were a little ‘wedged’ in the anterior / posterior aspect of the pelvis – which is narrower in a squat position. It was an intuitive action and both Bel and I thought she had told me the baby was ‘stuck’… but when we watched the film no one said that.
      If Bel had moved position the baby likely would have released as she was very low down… but I kind of jiggled baby round into the oblique aspect of the pelvis to release the shoulders 🙂

      • Sheila Stubbs says:

        Both of you thought she had spoken. Fascinating! There was definitely some unseen communication happening!

        • Yep – this is why I feel ‘safer’ at a homebirth with a woman I know well than in a hospital birth with a woman I don’t. You pick up on so much when you are entirely focussed on the woman and her environment 🙂

  6. Lizzy says:

    I am a midwife practicing in VIC and interestingly just did a perineal suturing workshop today. I haven’t ever seen an intact peri with a fourth degree tear but I did see some pictures today of this exact occurence in the slides. Doesn’t help you with stats, but there you go.

    • Thanks Lizzie… Can you clarify what the photo was of? A 4th degree tear by definition is a tear in the vaginal tissue, perineal skin, and muscle that extends into the anal sphincter. Was all of the perineal tissues intact with just a tear in the rectum? Was the photograph taken from inside the rectum? So unusual to have the vaginal wall etc. intact in this situation.
      And yeah… for information sharing re. stats to get consent we need an incidence rather than a rare anecdote 🙂
      I was on shift once when a baby’s fist and arm came out of a woman’s anus (very rare and shocking)… we didn’t then implement rectal exams during pushing for all women just in case this happened again.

  7. I am so pleased you are a midwife thinking, writing and sharing Rachel. What you say clearly fits with my 25 years of Homebirth experience with and beside women. It is time for midwives to protect women, protect and support each other, stand strong on the issues our knowledge informs us is not best practice and is not what is expected of the ‘reasonable’ midwife in the circumstance. If we continue to be coerced into medicalisation and systemisation our profession is one of demise. Its a sad moment in my 57 year history, 43 years a Midwife, associated with the Australian Health Service. Thank you again. Robyn

    • Thanks Robyn – I agree. It really is time for midwives to step up and stop colluding in misogynistic maternity care. There is enough of us to form a strong resistance and effect change. Thank you for being one of those midwives x

  8. Kiersten Quinn says:

    Thankyou for writing this. So much wisdom and inspiration.

  9. So grateful, as always, for your careful thinking and writing Rachel. I am with Margaret – if women adopt upright postures or stay in water then they cannot easily be “bundled”! Several women have told me that putting their own hands on the baby during crowning or rumping allows them to connect intuitively with both the baby and the process of birth and achieve some slowness and stretch during this time. I agree that clitoral stimulation (by the woman and if she wishes it) may well have a role to play in aiding comfort and progress. I have used warm compresses where women ask for them for some time. My German colleague said that she was trained to use coffee soaked perineal pads though didn’t know quite why….

  10. Women’s Healthcare Australasia would like to thank Dr Rachel Reed’s for her blog outlining current work being undertaken by WHA and participating hospitals to reduce rates of third and fourth degree perineal tears in Australia.

    WHA welcomes midwives’ interest in reducing the numbers of women in Australia affected each year whose health and wellbeing is affected by the harms associated with third & fourth degree perineal tears.

    In response to her blog and social media posts, we would like to direct the Women’s Healthcare Community to view WHA’s response via the following link:

  11. Julie Huf says:

    Thank you Thank you Thank you as ever for your measured responses Rachel!
    As a Midwife and childbirth educator at one of the participating hospitals I am keen to review with colleagues the info sheets and education resources that the media release speaks of, so that we can incorporate them in our classes, however I was unable to locate them on the site. I have emailed them for assistance.

    • I would be interested in seeing the info sheets too. I have heard they are fear-based rather than evidence based. I wonder if they asked a lawyer to review them in relation to required information for consent?

  12. Erin coggins says:

    Hi Rachel,

    Are you happy for us to use the same questions you posed in response to WHA in our emails to them?

    Kind regards,


  13. Lesley says:

    Thank you for this post. In the US, the issue of perineal trauma has been one of the reasons used to justify our high rate of cesearns.

    Do you know about the “Hands on or Poised” study? This video:

    I just wanted to mention that because technically, “Hands on” in terms of “preventing” tears during birth, means perineal support and/or various maneuvers during crowning, not after the birth of the head.

  14. Lesley says:

    Oop! hmmmm….this is the right video!

  15. Lesley says:

    LOL! I am sorry – apparently I cant’s work the youtube! anyway it’s under HOOP study and was done in the UK. Many blessings!

    • Yes – the infamous HOOP trial. There has been quite a lot of comment and criticism of the research methodology. Not a good study… and showed no difference in perineal tearing anyway.
      Hands on involves lots of interventions. None of which are evidence based – from ‘guarding the perineum’ to applying pressure to the crowning head. This technique was on its way out in Australia…. but thanks to the bundle is back in fashion 😦

  16. Reblogged this on and commented:
    Having worked in UK in hospitals implementing the “perineal care bundle” referred to as OASI here, I have taken the stance that my client’s wellbeing is paramount and in the absence of evidence relating to severe tearing in midwives’ as opposed to obstetrician’s cases I feel comfortable supporting mothers to choose or reject any aspect of the bundle and have found that many off for hands off approach and avoid rectal examination. It’s worth mentioning that many births I attend are in water and I keep my hands away to avoid invading mama’s space and most importantly avoiding stimulating little one to breathe until they surface.

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