Perineal ‘Bundles’ and Midwifery

Updated: August 2020

I’ve tried to avoid tackling this issue for months now but it won’t go away. It seems that the ‘bundle’ is one of the main topics of concern amongst midwives and students at the moment. So here goes – my answer to “what can we do about the bundle?”

The WHA CEC Perineal Bundle©

Women’s Healthcare Australasia (WHA) is implementing a “range of initiatives to support members to achieve the highest possible standards of maternity & newborn care, including benchmarking, networking, and collaborative improvement projects.” One of the initiatives is a WHA National Collaborative Improvement Project aimed at “reducing by 20% the number of women harmed by a third or fourth degree tear [OASI] by the end of 2018”. This is much needed with rates of around 3-4% in some hospitals. The WHA state that: “Teams from twenty six maternity services… are participating.  Teams are receiving regular coaching and support to reliably implement a bundle of evidence based practices known to reduce risk harm from tears.” A similar project is underway in the UK. However this post focuses on the Australian bundle.

The bundle has been rolled out in hospitals across Australia and has changed midwifery practice and the experience of birth for women. The bundle is not adequately supported by evidence and the WHA did not obtain ethical clearance for this experiment.

Before we go any further it is important to note what ‘controllable’ factors are known increase the chance of severe perineal tearing (SPT) during birth according to research: hospital birth, particular positions (supine, lithotomy, squatting); directed pushing; syntocinon with multips; hands on for multips; and instrumental birth. See this this post for more information, discussion and references about particular interventions. None of those evidence-based factors are included in the WHA bundle. In addition, in the leaflet provided to women about the bundle there is no mention of care provider / intervention factors, only those relating to the woman and her body (age, ethnicity, size of baby, etc.). Essentially laying the blame for SPT on women and their malfunctioning bodies, rather than what care providers do to women. The leaflet also contains no references to support its statements.

Dahlen et al. (2015) comment on why interventions that cause of SPT have been ignored: “The cascade of intervention in hospital (induction of labour, epidural use, instrumental birth, episiotomy) as a probably cause of higher rates of [SPT] is often not considered in the obstetric discourse around this issue. Perhaps philosophical frameworks and deeply held beliefs around women’s bodies and capacity carry a greater weight at the end of the day than does scientific evidence. Perhaps it is ultimately through this lens of ‘belief’ around women and birth that we select the evidence [or not] that fits most comfortably within our paradigmatic positioning.”

I will address each of the 5 practices in the WHA perineal bundle:

1: Apply warm perineal compresses during the second stage of labour at the commencement of perineal stretching (for all women).

Cochrane Review =  “Moderate-quality evidence suggests that warm compresses, and massage, may reduce third- and fourth-degree tears but the impact of these techniques on other outcomes was unclear or inconsistent”. It would be nice if it was worded a little differently ie. ‘offer all women…’ You can find more information about how to apply warm perineal compresses here. Unfortunately, anecdotal reports suggest that women are being told to get into a semi supine position (which increases tearing) so that the midwives can apply the compress and ‘view’ the perineum.

2: With a spontaneous vaginal delivery [birth!], using gentle verbal guidance, to encourage a slow controlled birth of the fetal head and shoulders: a) support the perineum with the dominant hand; b) apply counter pressure on the fetal head with the non-dominant hand; c) if the shoulders do not delivery spontaneously, apply gentle traction to release the anterior shoulder; d) allow the posterior shoulder to be released following the curve of Carus.

Slow birth does reduce the chance of tearing – supporting physiology assists with this. However, ‘hands on’ does not reduce tearing according to a Cochrane Review. (best evidence). In addition, a recent study conducted in Australian hospitals found that ‘hands on’ made no difference for primips, and increased the chance of tearing for multips. The study concluded that: “A hands poised/undirected approach could be utilised in strategies for the prevention of moderate and severe perineal injury.” The ‘hands on’ recommendation also contradicts Queensland Health Normal Birth Guidelines – which state that ‘hands on’ makes no difference to tearing and increases the chance of an episiotomy.

Of course there are always situation in which ‘hands on’ is appropriate. You can see me using hands on at this birth. However, ‘hands off’ ie. non-intervention should be default as per evidence and midwifery professional standards.

3: When episiotomy is indicated it should be performed: a) at crowning of the fetal head; b) using a medio-lateral incision; c) at a minimum 60 degree angle from the fourchette. NB. An episiotomy is indicated for all women requiring a forceps or vacuum assisted delivery having their first vaginal birth.

A hands on approach as dictated above increases the chance of the care provider carrying out an episiotomy (Aasheim et al. 2017); and the implementation of the bundle itself has caused a rise in rates (Thornton & Dahlen 2020). The type of episiotomy recommend is based on limited evidence and markets a particular type of scissor now shown to be ineffective in reducing SPT (Thornton & Dahlen 2020). However, midwives are being ‘up-skilled’ in how to cut women using these new (very expensive) scissors. One midwife reported that:

At my hospital the PPH rate went up rapidly when we got the new episcissors as they were like hot knives in butter and women were having buttectomies with them. They are sharp and dreadful with a flexible guide tail to ensure the correct angle is cut. Plus the training guide on them stops practitioners from using clinical judgement so there’s been some labial episiotomies by medical staff because the practitioners are not looking at the woman physiology but following the guide. – Anonymous (midwife)

An episiotomy wound is more painful and heals less well than a spontaneous tear. There is insufficient evidence to support claims that episiotomy reduces the chance of SPT. A mid-line episiotomy actually contributes to the risk of severe perineal trauma (Lappen & Gossett 2014). Whereas a medio-lateral episiotomy cuts through more nerves and perineal structures than mid-line (Patel et al. 2018). We are only just beginning to understand the complex anatomy of the clitoris  – a structure that is cut during 60 degree episiotomy. It is not surprising that a medio-lateral episiotomy is associated “with a decreased sexual functioning as well as sexual desire, arousal and orgasm within postpartum five years” (Dogan et al. 2017).

In relation to instrumental birth… this is an obstetrician directed recommendation. I’m sure there are some OBs a bit miffed at being told to cut every woman during instrumental births rather than use their clinical judgement for individual women. I’ve worked with many OBs who are able to do a ventouse with an intact perineum. However, instrumental birth does increase the risk of SPT. It is interesting that there is no recommendation to avoid adherence to non-evidence based timeframes for ‘progress’ that result in unnecessary instrumental births and perineal tearing (WHO).

4: Genito-anal examination following birth needs to: a) be performed by an experienced clinician; b) include a PR [rectal] examination on all women, including those with an intact perineum.

Rectal examination has always been part of assessing a perineal tear, particularly a 2nd degree tear – to identify if it is a 3rd or 4th degree. If clinicians are missing 3rd / 4th degree tears then they need to be supported to improve their assessment of tears. The main issue with this recommendation is doing a rectal examination on a woman with an intact perineum. I have been unable to get any stats on the incidence of 3rd/4th degree tears with an intact vaginal wall. I have never seen this. I have heard rumours that it has happened. However, it must be extremely rare. Considering only around 1% of women having non-instrumental vaginal births have OASI – the proportion of those women who have a ‘hidden’ OASI must be less than 0.5%. The incidence of this rare situation needs to be shared with women who have an intact perineum so that they can make an informed decision to consent to a rectal examination. Anyone with the stats – please share them! A blog post by Jim Thornton (an OB) about this invasive intervention concludes: “Routine rectal examination in the presence of an intact perineum fails all the criteria of a useful screening test. Most midwives wisely don’t do it. Those that do, should stop.”

5: All perineal trauma should be: a) graded according to the RCOG grading guideline; b) reviewed by a second experienced clinician to confirm the diagnosis and grading.


Midwifery Practice

As midwives we are supposed to adhere to professional and legal standards. Our professional standards require us to be woman-centred, evidence-based and promote and support physiology (ICM; NMBA – Australia). The ICM position statement on the ‘appropriate use of intervention childbirth’ provides guidance about the use of intervention by midwives and states that: “Women have the right to make informed decisions about the use or non-use of intervention” and “urges midwives to only use or promote the use of intervention during childbirth when indicated.” The law requires us to gain consent for any proposed intervention, consent involves providing adequate information. The mother-midwife relationship requires that midwives share information with women and support their decisions. This is where midwives and students are struggling. Aspects of the bundle conflict with their professional responsibilities.

So back to the initial question “what can we do about the bundle”. The recommendations that are causing the most upset are the ‘hands on’ approach for all births, and the rectal examination with an intact perineum.

Suggestions re. ‘hands on’ for all births

  • We could just refuse to comply with ‘hands on’ based on our professional and legal requirements for evidence-based care. Our professional and legal standards trump any workplace directive or employee contract. If all midwives supported each other in this stance practice would change.


  • Ensure that women are given adequate information to consent to this intervention – preferably in the antenatal period so that their wishes can be clearly documented before labour. This information needs to include the fact that the intervention is not supported by evidence, and for multips it may increase the chance of them tearing.

Suggestions re. rectal examination for intact perineum

  • Demand the evidence to support this intervention ie. the incidence of 3rd / 4th degree tearing with an intact perineum. Without this we cannot…
  • Ensure that women are given adequate information to consent. Including a statement along the lines of (after initial assessment of the perineum post birth): “Your perineum is intact and I can’t see any evidence of a tear. In rare circumstances (quantify here eg. 1: 1000) there is a tear in the rectum despite the perineum being intact. I can check your rectum for you if you’d like, or I can leave you to get on with x [feeding baby, etc.]. What would you like me to do?”

We could also use the bundle as an opportunity to get back to basics (woman-centred, evidence-based care) and reclaim midwifery as an autonomous profession (ICM). It is about time that midwives said ‘enough’ to the bombardment of non-evidence based medicalisation of birth. Solidarity (with each other and women) and activism is long overdue in maternity care.

Backlash to this post by WHA

Since the publication of this post – WHA have publicly challenged my critic of the bundle. Below is a record of this ‘debate’:

Media Release from WHA (May 2018)

In May WHA responded to this blog post with a public media release . The media release later required a log-in (transparency is not on the agenda of WHA). Essentially the media release re-iterated the intention of WHA to improve outcomes. It did not provide any evidence for the bundle or address any of the issues I raised. It did state that financial penalties for hospital have been removed for 3rd and 4th degree tears. However, these penalties are being implemented – reinforcing the rise in episiotomies as there is no fine for cutting rates. I responded to WHA with the questions below, which remain unanswered:

  • Which members of the expert panel had the final say regarding which interventions were included in the bundle? Were all of the experts in agreement about the final bundle?
  • Could WHA provide a statement from the consumers involved that they approved the final bundle; and provide information about whether consumers withdrew from the working party (and what proportion withdrew)?
  • WHA state that they are “happy to share any of the evidence reviewed by the expert panel in the development of the bundle” – Could you please share the evidence relating to a ‘hands on’ approach for all women during birth, and explain why this recommendation contradicts the QH Normal Birth guidelines.
  • Why were other evidence-based approaches that align with clinical guidelines not included in the bundle eg. spontaneous pushing, encouraging/discouraging particular birthing positions?
  • Will WHA monitor episiotomy rates during this intervention. Anecdotally midwives  and students are reporting increased use of episiotomy during normal birth, particularly for primips.
  • Could WHA provide an estimated risk of a 3rd/4th degree tears WITH AN INTACT PERINEUM. It is the rectal examination with an intact perineum that is problematic re. informed consent.

Readers – please email WHA ( with your concerns and experiences relating to the bundle. It is important that WHA are made aware of how the bundle is impacting on the care of women in the clinical setting.

Update (December 2018)

WHA have made the media release about this post public again due to ‘ongoing interest’ (see comment below by Adele ? WHA). The comment also provides a link to a promotional video of various professionals marketing the bundle. A very different perspective to the one I am hearing from practitioners on the ‘shop floor’! Unfortunately WHA have still not answered the questions posed above.

Update – A Celebration? (August 2020)

The WHA bundle is firmly established as routine care in many hospitals across Australia. The website spins the narrative of damaged women (with heart-wrenching personal stories of SPT) and the hero care providers who can use their special powers (interventions) to save these women. The webpage called Celebrating Success provides scant information about outcomes and raises more questions that answers:

  • No methodology is provided so the reader cannot determine if the findings are valid.
  • WHA claim they are working on peer reviewed journal articles to present the full findings. However, there is no evidence of ethical approval for their ‘experiment’ and you cannot publish in any decent journal without ethics.
  • Very limited findings (claims) are presented and there is no public access to the full report.
  • The claims of reduced SPT are not placed into context, therefore are meaningless. For example, the claim of an 11% reduction of SPT for women having a spontaneous vaginal birth… 11% of what? The rate of SPT for this group of women in Australia was 2.5% in 2015 (Wilson & Homer 2020). So, if the bundle reduced that rate by 11% it amounted to a 0.25% reduction ie. to a rate of 2.25%.
  • Most importantly, there is no data shared about the episiotomy rates post bundle implementation. Why? They most certainly will have collected this data. Episiotomy is perineal damage and needs to be included in any evaluation of a bundle aimed at reducing perineal damage.

I am unsure what exactly WHA are celebrating. Even if we accept their unsubstantiated statistics, the bundle has reduced the SPT by less than half a % while most likely significantly increasing the rates of episiotomy trauma. The bundle has significantly changed midwifery practice – back towards routine intervention during birth and liberal cutting of women. I don’t see how that is any cause for celebration.

Further resources: 

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41 Responses to Perineal ‘Bundles’ and Midwifery

  1. Cathy Green says:

    This is fabulous thankyou! Cathy Green Midwife Birmingham Women’s hospital

    Sent from my iPhone


    • Thanks Cathy – at least the UK website kind of cites some research. In the movie the OB blames midwives for not protecting the perineum. Cites a study (no ref provided so I can’t check it out) that has findings contrary to all the other studies… then tells us that they invited the researcher over to teach them all how to intervene. Unbelievable!

  2. Dear Rachel

    I feel so despairing. Why not just turn her over (rotate her 180 degrees around the axis of her spine)? All-fours, standing, less perineal trauma according to a recent BMAC article. You probably can’t do any of the ‘bundle’ in these positions and if the bundle is going to prevent this then you are causing perineal trauma (and internal trauma) needlessly. OK I might be exaggerating.

    Midwifery Today have just accepted the attached article from me on the role of the clitoris in 2nd stage, to be published in the ‘Fall’ and I would greatly appreciate your thoughts on this. I thhink it is the key to 2nd stage and yet another angle on positio in labour. I hope you find it in tune with your own thinking.

    I should have said in the article we need to wait for the reflex to work. I originally wrote it for the New Scientist as they seem to relish anything ‘sexy’ but obviously not from an unknown female writer. Midwifery Today had a lovely piece including different phases which tied up beautifully with my clitoris aticle so I tweaked it for them.

    Anyway, thanks for all you are doing to put the real science into midwifery.


  3. Bethan says:

    Thanks Rachel this is refreshing to hear. When I first heard about the bundle I was sadden to hear that we’re being dictated practice, where is our autonomy going? and why aren’t they looking at all the evidence on continuity models where physiological births are more evident with fantastic outcomes including perineal trauma!
    Thank you for your comprehensive review of the available evidence and voicing what we’re all thinking.

    • We need to remember that the institutions are culture-based. Historically they have been dominated by medicine and the view that women’s bodies are dangerous and need to be controlled by the external expert. This is reflected in policy and guidelines including this initiative. As midwives we can choose to align our practice with midwifery philosophy… and work towards a woman-centred approach to maternity care. We have the research on our side – this type of care improves outcomes.

  4. Ana says:

    Whenever I read or hear about tearing I can’t help reflecting on my own experience, which was no tearing at all with my 10 lb. 14 oz. water baby. People couldn’t believe it because the popular notion is that big babies must always be difficult to deliver. When I knew my daughter was going to be big I started reading other big baby home birth stories to prepare. There are so many out there. So I add mine to this discussion as well. My claim to fame 😉 Thank you for your brilliant work! Like all of your writing this article is a must-read.

  5. Just wondering why you did use hands on for the birth in the video Rachel? (Bel’s VBAC) Thanks, Karen

    • Baby’s shoulder were a little ‘wedged’ in the anterior / posterior aspect of the pelvis – which is narrower in a squat position. It was an intuitive action and both Bel and I thought she had told me the baby was ‘stuck’… but when we watched the film no one said that.
      If Bel had moved position the baby likely would have released as she was very low down… but I kind of jiggled baby round into the oblique aspect of the pelvis to release the shoulders 🙂

      • Sheila Stubbs says:

        Both of you thought she had spoken. Fascinating! There was definitely some unseen communication happening!

        • Yep – this is why I feel ‘safer’ at a homebirth with a woman I know well than in a hospital birth with a woman I don’t. You pick up on so much when you are entirely focussed on the woman and her environment 🙂

          • bellababies says:

            It was the weirdest thing. When the video came back, I said to the videographer, “where is the bit where I asked Rachel to help? Cos we had discussed it immediately after the birth and debriefed that moment, as rach wanted to reassure me that I could have gotten bubs out and that Maddie wasn’t stuck, but Georgia spent ages trying to listen and hear me say it, and said it just wasn’t there, which was a bit of a shock.

  6. Lizzy says:

    I am a midwife practicing in VIC and interestingly just did a perineal suturing workshop today. I haven’t ever seen an intact peri with a fourth degree tear but I did see some pictures today of this exact occurence in the slides. Doesn’t help you with stats, but there you go.

    • Thanks Lizzie… Can you clarify what the photo was of? A 4th degree tear by definition is a tear in the vaginal tissue, perineal skin, and muscle that extends into the anal sphincter. Was all of the perineal tissues intact with just a tear in the rectum? Was the photograph taken from inside the rectum? So unusual to have the vaginal wall etc. intact in this situation.
      And yeah… for information sharing re. stats to get consent we need an incidence rather than a rare anecdote 🙂
      I was on shift once when a baby’s fist and arm came out of a woman’s anus (very rare and shocking)… we didn’t then implement rectal exams during pushing for all women just in case this happened again.

  7. I am so pleased you are a midwife thinking, writing and sharing Rachel. What you say clearly fits with my 25 years of Homebirth experience with and beside women. It is time for midwives to protect women, protect and support each other, stand strong on the issues our knowledge informs us is not best practice and is not what is expected of the ‘reasonable’ midwife in the circumstance. If we continue to be coerced into medicalisation and systemisation our profession is one of demise. Its a sad moment in my 57 year history, 43 years a Midwife, associated with the Australian Health Service. Thank you again. Robyn

    • Thanks Robyn – I agree. It really is time for midwives to step up and stop colluding in misogynistic maternity care. There is enough of us to form a strong resistance and effect change. Thank you for being one of those midwives x

  8. Kiersten Quinn says:

    Thankyou for writing this. So much wisdom and inspiration.

  9. So grateful, as always, for your careful thinking and writing Rachel. I am with Margaret – if women adopt upright postures or stay in water then they cannot easily be “bundled”! Several women have told me that putting their own hands on the baby during crowning or rumping allows them to connect intuitively with both the baby and the process of birth and achieve some slowness and stretch during this time. I agree that clitoral stimulation (by the woman and if she wishes it) may well have a role to play in aiding comfort and progress. I have used warm compresses where women ask for them for some time. My German colleague said that she was trained to use coffee soaked perineal pads though didn’t know quite why….

  10. Women’s Healthcare Australasia would like to thank Dr Rachel Reed’s for her blog outlining current work being undertaken by WHA and participating hospitals to reduce rates of third and fourth degree perineal tears in Australia.

    WHA welcomes midwives’ interest in reducing the numbers of women in Australia affected each year whose health and wellbeing is affected by the harms associated with third & fourth degree perineal tears.

    In response to her blog and social media posts, we would like to direct the Women’s Healthcare Community to view WHA’s response via the following link:

  11. Julie Huf says:

    Thank you Thank you Thank you as ever for your measured responses Rachel!
    As a Midwife and childbirth educator at one of the participating hospitals I am keen to review with colleagues the info sheets and education resources that the media release speaks of, so that we can incorporate them in our classes, however I was unable to locate them on the site. I have emailed them for assistance.

    • I would be interested in seeing the info sheets too. I have heard they are fear-based rather than evidence based. I wonder if they asked a lawyer to review them in relation to required information for consent?

  12. Erin coggins says:

    Hi Rachel,

    Are you happy for us to use the same questions you posed in response to WHA in our emails to them?

    Kind regards,


  13. Lesley says:

    Thank you for this post. In the US, the issue of perineal trauma has been one of the reasons used to justify our high rate of cesearns.

    Do you know about the “Hands on or Poised” study? This video:

    I just wanted to mention that because technically, “Hands on” in terms of “preventing” tears during birth, means perineal support and/or various maneuvers during crowning, not after the birth of the head.

  14. Lesley says:

    Oop! hmmmm….this is the right video!

  15. Lesley says:

    LOL! I am sorry – apparently I cant’s work the youtube! anyway it’s under HOOP study and was done in the UK. Many blessings!

    • Yes – the infamous HOOP trial. There has been quite a lot of comment and criticism of the research methodology. Not a good study… and showed no difference in perineal tearing anyway.
      Hands on involves lots of interventions. None of which are evidence based – from ‘guarding the perineum’ to applying pressure to the crowning head. This technique was on its way out in Australia…. but thanks to the bundle is back in fashion 🙁

  16. Reblogged this on and commented:
    Having worked in UK in hospitals implementing the “perineal care bundle” referred to as OASI here, I have taken the stance that my client’s wellbeing is paramount and in the absence of evidence relating to severe tearing in midwives’ as opposed to obstetrician’s cases I feel comfortable supporting mothers to choose or reject any aspect of the bundle and have found that many off for hands off approach and avoid rectal examination. It’s worth mentioning that many births I attend are in water and I keep my hands away to avoid invading mama’s space and most importantly avoiding stimulating little one to breathe until they surface.

  17. Val says:

    This is not very transparent….why is a login required to read a press release? What have you to hide?

    • Val says:

      I am referring to the WHA comment and the fact that one cannot simply “read” anything associated with the link in their comment/rebuttal as one requires a login….to read a press release. Very dodgy.

      • Initially the info via the link was open to the public. Then they made it log in only. Seems they don’t feel obliged to share information with the women whose perineums are being experimented with, or the midwives expected to follow the bundle. 🙁

  18. Adele says:

    Due to ongoing interest the WHA has again made the media release public.
    We welcome your interest and hope you take the time to review all of the information available on the Collaborative pages of the website

  19. Adele says:

    We are in the process of analysing all of the data associated with the Collaborative, including episiotomy rates. A final report will be published and will be available on the Collaborative pages of the WHA website. The WHA looks forward to being able to share this information with you soon.

  20. Mavis Kirkham says:

    Thank you. Yet another example of the damage done by trying to standardise practice.

  21. Hayley says:

    As a doula and childbirth educator, I am dismayed (but not altogether surprised) to see that a hospital I support clients at is one of the 28 participants. Have you got any advice as to how I can support my clients to make informed, independent decisions and birth plans in respect to this seemingly complex topic – particularly when some of them are ineligible for continuity of care and are only meeting their midwife when they turn up in labour?

    • I would recommend that women who want to opt out of the bundle write this very clearly and specifically on a document (eg. birth plan). Then hand it over to their care provider when they are admitted into hospital. As a doula you can ensure the midwife is aware of that documentation and that the woman does not consent to the interventions.
      WHA itself states that the bundle is ‘optional’ and that women can decline it.

  22. Bianca says:

    Hi! I’m looking for more information about the hospitals being fined for tear rates and the media release has been once again taken down. Do you have a copy or somewhere I can get more info?

    • There weren’t ‘fines’ – rather penalties ie. reduced funding etc. This was early on in the trial and apparently has been ceased. However, depending on facility there may be a requirement to meet particular rates of x, y or z (including 3rd / 4th degree tearing). The requirements are usually about reducing complications rather than reducing interventions (ie. episiotomy). You would have to ask individual hospitals about their funding requirements.

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